The technology of steam cracking is well-established in the petrochemical industry. The steam cracking process is known to be the main source for supplying large quantities of ethylene, propylene, and butadiene, which are building blocks of most chemical products. Steam cracking is also the primary source for producing propane and higher hydrocarbons, which can be used as fuels. To produce ethylene and propylene, the hydrocarbon feedstock is first preheated and mixed with steam before being introduced into the pyrolysis furnace. The pyrolysis reaction is typically carried out in a pyrolysis furnace with radiant heat. This is how the process is known for being so energy- and cost-efficient. In general, the feedstock is introduced at the top of the pyrolysis furnace where the temperature is relatively low (about 200 °C). The feedstock is then heated up to around 500 °C as it enters the pyrolysis section. The hydrocarbon feedstock is mixed with steam and becomes mixed pyrolysis feedstock.
The reaction is autothermal, meaning that the reaction heat is generated in the cracking process itself. During the cracking step, large, gaseous hydrocarbon molecules are broken down into smaller molecules of carbon and hydrogen. In general, the heavier the molecule, the higher the energy required for cracking. The first step of the reaction is known as the “pyrolysis” step, in which the hydrocarbon feed is converted to smaller fragments (called “pyrolytic gases”). This is followed by the “cracking” step in which the pyrolytic gases are cracked into smaller gaseous fragments. These fragments are rich in carbon and hydrogen and can be used as a source of energy and feedstock. After cracking, the remaining residue is known as “coke” which is removed from the cracking furnace by mechanical devices such as conveyor belts, or gas-fired burners, or a combination of both. As the yield of coke per tonne of feedstock is high, the remaining carbon in the coke can be used for carbon feedstock. The remaining coke contains high amounts of metals such as silicon, aluminium, and iron, which can be recovered and can be used for the production of cement, cement clinker, and other industrial products. The remaining products are mainly unconverted carbon or carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
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